Presumed Guilty: How and Why the Warren Commission Framed Lee Harvey Oswald

Appendix A

Tentative Outline of the Work of the President's Commission


{Author's note: This "Tentative Outline" was attached to a "Progress Report" dated January 11, 1964, from Commission Chairman Earl Warren to the other Commission members, and reveals the extent to which the Commission's conclusions were formulated prior to its investigation.}

I. {Assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas}

A. Trip to Texas--Prior to Assassination 1. Initial plans for trip a. relevent dates [sic] b. itinerary c. companions d. motorcade to luncheon e. other 2. Events of morning of November 22 a. arrival at airport--time, etc. b. motorcade--crowds, time, etc.

B. Assassination (based on all available statements of witnesses, films, photographs, etc.) 1. Shots a. number of shots fired b. time elapsed during shots c. direction of shots d. location of car at time 2. Postures and apparent injuries to President Kennedy and Governor Connally a. President Kennedy b. Governor Connally

C. Events Immediately Following the Shooting 1. Treatment at hospital 2. Activities of Dallas law enforcement 3. Return of entourage to Washington a. President Johnson's trip to airport b. trip of Mrs. Kennedy with body of late President to airport c. swearing-in 4. Removal of President Kennedy's body to Bethesda Naval Hospital 5. Removal of car to Washington--condition and repairs

D. Nature and Extent of Wounds Received by President Kennedy (based on examinations in Dallas and Bethesda) 1. Number of individual wounds received by President Kennedy 2. Cause of death 3. Time of death 4. Evaluation of medical treatment received in Dallas

II. {Lee Harvey Oswald as the Assassin of President Kennedy}

A. Brief Identification of Oswald (Dallas resident, employee of Texas School Book Depository, etc.)

B. Movements on November 22, 1963 Prior to Assassination 1. Trip to work a. time b. package c. other significant facts, e.g. any conversations, etc. 2. Entry into Depository a. time b. package c. other significant facts 3. Activities during morning a. nature of his work b. location of his work c. other significant facts, e.g. any conversations, etc. 4. Movements immediately prior to 12:29 P.M.

C. Movements after Assassination until Murder of Tippit 1. Presence within building a. location b. time c. encounter with police d. other relevant facts 2. Departure from building a. time b. direction of movement c. other relevant facts, e.g. crossing police line, etc. 3. Boarding of bus a. time and place of boarding b. duration of ride c. other relevant facts, e.g. dress, appearance, conversations, etc. 4. From bus to taxi a. time and place b. distance and route of cab c. time to destination d. other relevant facts obtained from cab driver or other witnesses or sources 5. Arrival at rooming house a. time b. actions within rooming house c. departure and direction 6. Route until encounter with Tippit a. time b. distance

D. Murder of Tippit 1. Encounter of Oswald and Tippit a. time b. location 2. Evidence demonstrating Oswald's guilt a. eyewitness reports b. murder weapon c. autopsy and ballistics reports d. paraffin tests e. other, e.g. statements (if any)

E. Flight and Apprehension in Texas Theater 1. Movement until entry into theater a. time b. actions, e.g. reloading weapon c. other relevant facts, e.g. recovery of jacket 2. Apprehension in theater a. movements of Oswald in theater b. notification and arrival of police c. arrest of Oswald d. removal to station

F. Oswald at Dallas Police Station 1. Interrogation a. time, manner and number of interrogation sessions b. persons present c. persons responsible d. results 2. Other investigation by Dallas police a. line-ups and eyewitness identification b. seizure of Oswald's papers c. other 3. Denials and other statements by Oswald 4. Removal to County Jail on November 24, 1963 5. Killing of Oswald by Ruby

G. Evidence Identifying Oswald as the Assassin of President Kennedy 1. Room of Texas School Book Depository identified as source of shots a. eyewitness reports b. trajectory of shots c. evidence on scene after assassination d. other 2. Oswald placed in Depository (and specific room?) a. eyewitness reports b. fingerprints on objects in room c. facts reviewed above 3. Assassination weapon identified as Oswald's a. discovery of rifle and shells b. obtaining and possession of gun by Oswald c. whereabouts of gun on November 21 and November 22 d. prints on rifle e. photographs of Oswald and rifle f. General Walker ballistic report. 4. Other physical evidence a. clothing tests b. paraffin tests 5. Prior similar acts a. General Walker attack b. General Eisenhower threat 6. Permissible inferences from Oswald's: a. flight from Depository b. statements on bus c. murder of Tippit

H. Evidence Implicating Others in Assassination or Suggesting Accomplices 1. Evidence of shots other than from Depository? 2. Feasibility of shots within time span and with use of telescope 3. Evidence re other persons involved in actual shooting from Depository 4. Analysis of all movements of Oswald after assassination for attempt to meet associates 5. Refutation of allegations

III. {Lee Harvey Oswald: Background and Possible Motive}

A. Birth and Pre-school Days 1. Family structure (death of father; statements of persons who knew family; interviews of mother, brother, and members of family) 2. Where family lived (statements as to childhood character of Oswald from neighbors who recall family and child) 3. Standard of living of family (document factors which would have bearing upon development) B. Education 1. Schools (reports from each school attended regarding demeanor, grades, development, attitude to fellow students, activities, problems, possible aptitude for languages, sex life, etc.) 2. Reports of fellow students, associates, friends, enemies at each school attended 3. Reports from various neighbors where Oswald lived while attending various schools 4. Special report from juvenile authorities in New York City concerning Oswald. a. report of case worker on Oswald and family b. psychiatrist who examined him, treatment and results, opinion as to future development C. Military Service 1. Facts regarding entry into service, assignments, stations, etc. until discharge 2. Reports of personnel from each station regarding demeanor, character, competence, activities, sex life, financial status, attitude, etc. 3. Report on all activities while in Japan 4. Report and document study of Russian language a. where and when b. books used c. instruction or self-taught d. any indication of degree of accomplishment



Appendix B

Memorandum to J. Lee Rankin from David W. Belin

{Author's note: This memorandum by staff lawyer Belin speaks for itself. A month later, on February 25,1964, Belin wrote in another memorandum, "At no time have we assumed that Lee Harvey Oswald was the assassin of President Kennedy." See chapter 2.}

MEMORANDUMJanuary 30, 1964 TO:J. Lee Rankin FROM:David W. Belin SUBJECT:Oswald's knowledge that Connally would be in the Presidential car and his intended target.

According to the Secret Service Report, Document No. 3, page 11, the route of the motorcade was released on the evening of November 18 and appeared in Dallas newspapers on November 19 as shown in Exhibits 6D and 6E (Document No. 3 is the December 18 Secret Service Report).

In examining these exhibits, although the general route of the motorcade is shown, there is nothing that shows that Governor Connally would be riding in the Presidential car.

In determining the accuracy of Oswald, we have three major possibilities: Oswald was shooting at Connally and missed two of the three shots, the two misses striking Kennedy; Oswald was shooting at both Kennedy and Connally and all three shots struck their intended targets; Oswald was shooting only at Kennedy and the second bullet missed its intended target and hit Connally instead.

If there was no mass media coverage that Connally would be riding in the Presidential car, it would tend to confirm the third alternative that Kennedy was the only intended target. This in turn bears on the motive of the assassination and also on the degree of markmanship [sic] required, which in turn affects the determination that Oswald was the assassin and that it was not too difficult to hit the intended target two out of the three times in this particular situation.

In any event, I believe it would be most helpful to have the FBI investigate all newspaper, television and radio reports from November 18 to November 22 in Dallas to ascertain whether or not in any of these reports there was a public announcement that Connally would be riding in the Presidential car. If such public announcement was made, we should know specifically over what media and when.

Of course, there is another element of timing: If Connally's position in the motorcade was not released until the afternoon of November 21, then when Oswald went home to get the weapon, he would not have necessarily intended Connally as the target.

Finally, we would like to know whether or not there was any release to the public news media that Connally would ride in any car in the motorcade, regardless of whether or not it was the Presidential car.

Thank you.



Appendix C

Memorandum to J. Lee Rankin from Norman Redlich

{Author's note: This is one of many similar outlines of the Warren Report, drafted long before the Commission's "investigation" ended, and before virtually all of the relevant testimony was taken. It proves that the Commission worked to substantiate a preconceived conclusion naming Oswald as the sole assassin.}

MEMORANDUMMarch 26, 1964 TO:J. Lee Rankin FROM:Norman Redlich SUBJECT:Proposed Outline of Report

I attach a proposed outline of our final report. This plan envisages a main report and supplementary materials to be published as one volume. This will be followed by appendixes to be published when prepared. These appendixes will contain the supporting material for the report such as the transcript of testimony, important underlying investigatory material, and photos of important exhibits not published with the original report.

I have listed the staff members who I feel should have responsibility for the particular sections of the report. Although I have assigned small sections of the report to Mr. Williams, Mr. Eisenberg, and myself, the major responsibility lies with other members of the staff. I am assuming that Mr. Williams as your Administrative Assistant, and I as your Special Assistant, together with Mr. Eisenberg, will have responsibility for review, editing, avoidance of duplication, and other technical details of putting a report into publishable condition.

With your permission, I would like to distribute this outline to the staff.

PROPOSED OUTLINE OF REPORT (Submitted by Mr. Redlich)

I. Statement of Objectives and Standards (Mr. Rankin) (The Report should start with a brief statement setting forth the Commission's view of its objectives and standards used to achieve them. It is important to clarify the Commission's position as a fact-finding body and to indicate wherein our findings differ from a judicial determination of criminal guilt.)

II. Brief Summary of Major Conclusions (Redlich and Willens) (The purpose of this section is to provide the reader with a short statement of our major conclusions without having to read through the entire document.) A. Basic Facts Concerning Assassination of President Kennedy and Shooting of Governor Connally B. Identity of the Assassin C. Conclusions Concerning Accomplices D. Conclusions Concerning Motive E. Ruby's Killing of Oswald and Conclusion as to Possible Link to Assassination III. The Assassination--Basic Facts (Adams and Specter) A. Physical Setting 1. Description of Motorcade 2. Description of Area where Shooting Occurred B. Shooting 1. Number of Shots 2. Medical Effect of Each Shot 3. Point from which Shots Fired 4. Statistical Data a. Elapsed time of shooting b. Distance travelled by Presidential car c. Speed of car d. Distance travelled by each bullet 5. Events Immediately following Shooting a. Reaction of Secret Service b. Trip to Parkland c. Events in Parkland d. Trip to Love Field e. Return to Washington

IV. Lee H. Oswald as the Assassin (Ball and Belin) (This section should state the facts which lead to the conclusion that Oswald pulled the trigger and should also indicate the elements in the case which have either not been proven or are based on doubtful testimony. Each of the factors listed below should be reviewed in that light.) A. Identification of Rifle as Murder Weapon B. Oswald's Ownership of Weapon C. Evidence of Oswald Carrying Weapon to Building 1. Fake Curtain Rod Stroy [sic] 2. Buell Frazier's Story 3. Possible Presence in Paine's Garage on Evening of November 21, 1963 D. Evidence of Oswald on Sixth Floor 1. Palm Prints on Carton 2. Paper Bag with Oswald Print E. Eyewitness Testimony F. Oswald After Assassination--Actions in Building G. Oswald After Assassination--Actions up to Tippit Shooting H. Shooting of Tippit and Arrest in Theatre 1. Eyewitnesses 2. Gun as Murder Weapon 3. Oswald's Ownership of Gun I. Statements After Arrest J. Prior Actions 1. Walker Shooting 2. Possible Nixon Attempt 3. Practice with Rifle K. Evidence of any Accomplices in Assassination L. Appraisal of Oswald's Actions on November 21 and 22 in Light of Assassination (This will be a difficult section, but I feel we must face up to the various paradoxical aspects of Oswald's behavior in light of his being the assassin. I suggest the following items for consideration.) 1. Did He Have a Planned Escape? 2. Why did he pass up the Opportunity to get money on November 21 when he returned to Irving? 3. Discussion with Marina about getting apartment in Dallas 4. Asking fellow employee, on morning of November 22, which way the President was coming.

V. Possible Motive (Jenner, Liebeler, Coleman, Slawson) A. Brief Biographical Sketch of Oswald (Fuller Biography in Supplement) B. Any Personal Animosity Toward Kennedy or Connally C. Do his Political Beliefs Furnish Motive D. Link to Domestic Left-Wing Groups 1. Fair Play for Cuba 2. Communist Party 3. Conclusions to be Drawn from such Links E. Link to Right-Wing Groups F. Possible Agent of Foreign Power G. Possible Link to Underworld

VI. Killing of Oswald by Ruby (Hubert and Griffin) A. Facts of the Killing 1. Actions of Ruby starting with November 22 2. Description of Events on November 24 B. Discussion of Possible Link with Assassination of President Kennedy C. Other Possible Motives 1. Brief Biographical Sketch (Fuller Sketch in Supplement) 2. Ruby as Self-styled Patriot, Hero, Important Man 3. Possibility of Ruby being Mentally Ill

SUPPLEMENT TO BE PUBLISHED WITH REPORT A. Visual Aids To Help Explain Main Body of Report (All Staff Members Concerned) B. Organization and Methods of Commission (Willens) C. Security Precautions to Protect Life of President (Stern) 1. What Was Done on This Trip 2. Broader Recommendations in This Area (I recognize that this area has been the subject of extended discussion and it might be desirable to move this section to the main body of the Report) D. Detailed Facts About President's Trip up to Assassination (Adams, Specter, Stern) E. Biography of Oswald (Jenner, Liebeler, Coleman, Slawson) F. Biography of Ruby (Hubert and Griffin) G. Oswald Relationship with U.S. Government Agencies (Redlich, Stern, Coleman, Slawson) H. Discussion of Widely Circulated Theories (Redlich and Eisenberg) I. Other Important Documents We May Wish to Publish as Part of Supplement, I suggest the following: 1. Autopsy Reports 2. Summary of Testimony of Experts on Physical Evidence (Eisenberg) 3. Charts and Other Data Presented by Experts (Eisenberg) 4. Reports of Medical Examination on Governor Connally 5. Report of FBI and Secret Service on Location of President's car at Time of Shots (Redlich and Eisenberg)


Appendix D

A Later Memorandum to J. Lee Rankin from Norman Redlich

{Author's note: This memorandum by staff lawyer Redlich explicitly states that the object of the investigation was not to determine the truth as far as it could be known, but rather to substantiate a preconceived conclusion.}

MEMORANDUMApril 27, 1964 TO:J. Lee Rankin FROM:Norman Redlich

The purpose of this memorandum is to explain the reasons why certain members of the staff feel that it is important to take certain on-site photographs in connection with the location of the approximate points at which the three bullets struck the occupants of the Presidential limousine.

Our report presumably will state that the President was hit by the first bullet, Governor Connally by the second, and the President by the third and fatal bullet. The report will also conclude that the bullets were fired by one person located in the sixth floor southeast corner window of the TSBD building.

As our investigation now stands, however, we have not shown that these events could possibly have occurred in the manner suggested above. All we have is a reasonable hypothesis which appears to be supported by the medical testimony but which has not been checked out against the physical facts at the scene of the assassination.

Our examination of the Zapruder films shows that the fatal third shot struck the President at a point which we can locate with reasonable accuracy on the ground. We can do this because we know the exact frame (no. 313) in the film at which the third shot hit the President and we know the location of the photographer. By lining up fixed objects in the movie fram [sic] where this shot occurs we feel that we have determined the approximate location of this shot. This can be verified by a photo of the same spot from the point were Zapruder was standing.

We have the testimony of Governor and Mrs. Connally that the Governor was hit with the second bullet at a point which we probably cannot fix with precision. We feel we have established, however, with the help of medical testimony, that the shot which hit the Governor did not come {after} frame 240 on the Zapruder film. The Governor feels that it came around 230 which is certainly consistent with our observations of the film and with the doctor's testimony. Since the President was shot at frame 313, this would leave a time of at least 4 seconds between two shots, certainly ample for even an inexperienced marksman.

Prior to our last viewing of the films with Governor Connally we had assumed that the President was hit while he was concealed behind the sign which occurs between frames 215 to 225. We have expert testimony to the effect that a skilled marksman would require a minimum of time of 2 1/4 seconds between shots with this rifle. Since the camera operates at 18 1/3 frames per second, there would have to be a minimum of 40 frames between shots. It is apparent therefore, that if Governor Connally was hit even as late as frame 240, the President would have to have been hit no later than frame 190 and probably even earlier.

We have not yet examined the assassination scene to determine whether the assassin in fact could have shot the President prior to frame 190. We could locate the position on the ground which corresponds to this frame and it would then be our intent to establish by photography that the assassin could have fired the first shot at the President prior to this point. Our intention is not to establish the point with complete accuracy, but merely to substantiate the hypothesis which underlies the conclusions that Oswald was the sole assassin.

I had always assumed that our final report would be accompanied by a surveyor's diagram which would indicate the appropriate location of the three shots. We certainly cannot prepare such a diagram without establishing that we are describing an occurrence which is physically possible. Our failure to do this will, in my opinion, place this Report in jeopardy since it is a certainty that others will examine the Zapruder films and raise the same questions which have been raised by our examination of the films. If we do not attempt to answer these questions with observable facts, others may answer them with facts which challenge our most basic assumptions, or with fanciful theories based on our unwillingness to test our assumptions by the investigatory methods available to us.

I should add that the facts which we now have in our possession, submitted to us in separate reports from the FBI and Secret Service, are totally incorrect and, if left uncorrected, will present a completely misleading picture.

It may well be that this project should be undertaken by the FBI and Secret Service with our assistance instead of being done as a staff project. The important thing is that the project be undertaken expeditiously.


Appendix E

Report of the FBI's First Interview with Charles Givens

{Author's note: This is the actual report of the FBI's first interview with Charles Givens. Givens is reported as saying nothing about the alleged encounter with Oswald on the sixth floor that he was to describe to the Commission much later. Rather, he is reported to have told the FBI on the day of the assassination that he saw Oswald on the first floor at the same time he later told the Commission he saw Oswald on the sixth floor. This FBI report was not published by the Commission or mentioned in the Warren Report.


Date 11/23/63

CHARLES DOUGLAS GIVENS, 2511 Cochran Street, advised he was employed by the Texas School Book Depository, Houston and Elm Street, from October 1, 1963, to present time. GIVENS said he has worked at this same position as a wrapper on several occasions prior to this employment.

On November 22, 1963, GIVENS worked on the sixth floor of the building until about 11:30 A.M. when he used the elevator to travel to the first floor where he used the restroom at about 11:35 A.M. or 11:40 A.M. GIVENS then walked around on the first floor until 12 o'clock noon, at which time he walked onto the sidewalk and stood for several minutes, then walked to the Classified Parking Lot at Elm and Records Street. GIVENS then walked to Main Street to watch the parade and after the President and the group had passed, he walked back to the parking lot, at which time he heard several shots fired from the direction of the building at which he is employed. He attempted to return to work but was told that he had been released for the balance of the day.

GIVENS advised that a white male, known as LEE, was employed in the same building and worked as a wrapper or order filler. He said he saw this same person's picture on television on the afternoon of November 22, 1963, who was supposed to have been the person being investigated for the shooting of the President. LEE worked on all floors of the building, and on November 22, 1963, GIVENS recalls observing LEE working on the fifth floor during the morning filling orders. LEE was standing by the elevator in the building at 11:30 A.M. when GIVENS went to the first floor. When he started down in the elevator, LEE yelled at him to close the gates on the elevator so that he (LEE) could have the elevator returned to the sixth floor. GIVENS said that during the past few days LEE had commented that he rode to work with a boy named WESLEY.

GIVENS said all employees enter the back door of the building when JACK DOUGHERTY, the foreman opens the door at about 7 A.M. On the morning of November 22, 1963, GIVENS observed LEE reading a newspaper in the domino room where the employees eat lunch about 11:50 A.M. __________________________________________________________________

11/22/63 Dallas, Texas DL 89-43 on ____________ at _________________ File # ____________

WILL HAYDEN GRIFFEN by Special Agent _________________________ and BARDWELL D. ODUM (HM)

Date dictated 11/23/63 ____________


Appendix F

FBI Report on Mrs. R. E. Arnold

{Author's note: The Warren Commission stated in its Report that it knew of no Book Depository employee who claimed to have seen Oswald between 11:55 and 12:30 on the day of the assassination. This was false, as this FBI report from the Commission's files reveals. The Warren Report never mentions Mrs. Arnold and this FBI document was omitted from the Commission's published evidence.}


Date 11/26/63

Mrs. R. E. ARNOLD, Secretary, Texas School Book Depository, advised she was in her office on the second floor of the building on November 22, 1963, and left that office between 12:00 and 12:15 PM, to go downstairs and stand in front of the building to view the Presidential Motorcade. As she was standing in front of the building, she stated she thought she caught a fleeting glimpse of LEE HARVEY OSWALD standing in the hallway between the front door and the double doors leading to the warehouse, located on the first floor. She could not be sure that this was OSWALD, but said she felt it was and believed the time to be a few minutes before 12:15 PM.

She stated thereafter she viewed the Presidential Motorcade and heard the shots that were fired at the President; however, she could furnish no information of value as to the individual firing the shots or any other information concerning OSWALD, whom she stated she did not know and had merely seen him working in the building. __________________________________________________________________

11/26/63 Dallas, Texas DL 89-43 on ____________ at _________________ File # ___________

RICHARD E. HARRISON/rmh by Special Agent ___________________________

Date dictated 11/26/63 ____________




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Bickel, Alexander. "The Failure of the Warren Report." "Commentary" (October 1966). Epstein, Edward J. "The Final Chapter in the Assassination Controversy." "New York Times Magazine" (May 20, 1969). Fonzi, Gaeton. "The Warren Commission, the Truth, and Arlen Specter." "Philadelphia Magazine" (August 1966). Ford, Gerald. "Piecing Together the Evidence." "Life" (October 2, 1964). Garrison, Jim. "Playboy Interview: Jim Garrison." "Playboy" (October 1967). Jackson, Donald. "The Evolution of an Assassin." "Life" (February 21, 1964). Kempton, Murray. "Warren Report: Case for the Prosecution." "The New Republic" (October 10, 1964). Knebel, Fletcher. "A New Wave of Doubt." "Look" (July 12, 1966). Lane, Mark. "Playboy Interview: Mark Lane." "Playboy" (February 1967). Lattimer, John K. and Jon. "The Kennedy-Connally Single Bullet Theory: A Feasibility Study." "International Surgery" (December 1968). Lifton, David and Welsh, Robert. "A Counter-Theory: The Case For Three Assassins." "Ramparts" (January 1967). Lynd, Staughton and Minnis, Jack. "Seeds of Doubt: Some Questions About the Assassination." "The New Republic" (December 21, 1963). MacDonald, Dwight. "A Critique of the Warren Report." "Esquire" (March 1965). "A Matter of Reasonable Doubt." "Life" (November 25, 1966). Meagher, Sylvia. "The Curious Testimony of Mr. Givens." "The Texas Observer" (August 12, 1971). "November 22, 1963, Dallas: Photos by Nine Bystanders." "Life" (November 24, 1967). ______. "The Warren Commission's Private Life." "The Texas Observer" (April 3, 1970). Olson, Don and Turner, Ralph. "Photographic Evidence and the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy." "Journal of Forensic Sciences" (October 1971). Oswald, Robert L. "Oswald: He was my Brother." "Look" (October 17, 1967). Salandria, Vincent. "The Warren Report." "Liberation" (March 1965). ______. "The Impossible Tasks of One Assassination Bullet." "The Minority of One" (March 1966). "Truth About Kennedy Assassination: Questions Raised and Answered." "U.S. News and World Report" (October 10, 1966). Turner, William. "The Inquest." "Ramparts" (June 1967). ______. "The Garrison Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy." "Ramparts" (January 1968). Welsh, David. "In the Shadow of Dallas." "Ramparts" (November 1966). Wise, David. "Secret Evidence on the Kennedy Assassination." "Saturday Evening Post" (April 16, 1968)


[The index has been included verbatim from the original book. Hence the page numbers are not correct for this copy of the book, but it was felt the subjects noted here would still be useful as reference --ratitor ]


Accessories after the fact in assassination 33 Accomplices in assassination, 81- 82 Accountability of government, 24, 41 Aebersold, Paul C., 19 Alba, Adrian, 244-45 Alibi for Oswald, 221, 225 Ammunition. {See} Military ammunition; Sporting ammunition Anderson, Eugene, 231 Arce, Danny, 183 Archives. {See} National Archives Arnold, Mrs. Carolyn, 184-87, 276-77 Assassin's rifle. {See} Rifle Atomic Energy Commission, 19, 20, 21, 23 Autopsy on President Kennedy, 37, 121 Autopsy photos and Xrays, 37-39, 115, 117, 121-22

Bag. {See} Paper bag Baker, Mrs. Donald, 186 Baker, M. L., 63, 199, 201-9, 213, 218-21, 252-53 Ball Joseph 84-86, 163, 181, 205 Ballistics evidence, 48 Ballistics tests, 50; simulating head wounds, 111-14 Belin, David, 29-30, 84-86, 90, 169, 196, 197-98, 222, 288-89 Bernabei, Richard, 126, 129, 283 Blanket, 170-71 Boggs, Hale, 17, 26, 80, 222 Bolt practice by Oswald, 242-43 Bookhout, James, 182 Boone, Eugene, 212, 213 Boswell, Dr. J. Thornton, 118-19 Brandeis, Louis, 41 Brennan, Howard, 61-62, 188, 190-98,199 Bullet fragments, 19-20, 21-22; in car, 98, 107, 114, 146, 254; from Governor Connally, 99-100, 103, 131, 132; in President Kennedy's head, 38-39, 117; in President Kennedy's neck, 121-25, 145 Bullet 399, 22, 95-96, 99-101, 103, 121, 124, 128, 129, 131, 133, 134, 136-45, 250; planted, 253 Bullet wounds 50, of Governor Connally, 131-45, of President Kennedy's anterior neck, 79, 123,125,145; of President Kennedy's back, 126, 145; of President Kennedy's head, 108-20; of President Kennedy's neck, 120-29 Bullets. {See} also Military ammunition; Sporting ammunition Bullets and fragments, 48 Bullets, high-velocity, 119

Cabell, Mrs. Earle, 188 Cadigan, James, 171-72 Calvery, Gloria, 204-5 Cartridge cases, 37, 49, 69, 107, 127-28, 129, 147 Castro, Fidel, 29, 30 CBS News, 193,197, 205, 213 Central Broadcasting System. {See} CBS News Central Intelligence Agency. {See} CIA CIA, 29, 30, 38 CIA, President's Commission on domestic activities of, 29-30, 39 Clark, Ramsey, 105,114-15; panel assembled by, 37, 39, 115, 117, 118, 121 Clothing: description, 288; worn by gunman, 198-99; worn by President Kennedy, 20, 99, 103; worn by Oswald, 198-99 Cohen, Jacob, 281 Congress, 9, 11, 30-31, 40, 255 Connally, John, 25, 84 Cooper, Sen. John Sherman, 26 80, 134-35, 222, 238 Couch, Malcolm, 188, 203, 205, 208, 209, 289 Craig, Roger, 212 Crawford, James, 188 Cuban refugee at Parkland Hospital, 146 Curry, Jesse E., 74, 100 Curtain rods, 56, 146, 158-60, 174; story about, 58, 88

"Dallas Morning News," 152-53, 154 Dallas police, 37, 74, 90, 160, 171, 180-82, 195, 199, 205, 248; line-ups of, 195, 199, 200; radio logs of, 187 "Dallas Times Herald," 83, 152 Daniels, Gene, 159-60 Dealey Plaza, 46 Deception, political, 10-13 Delgado, Nelson, 230-31, 232 De Mohrenschildt, George, 223, 239-41, 244 De Mohrenschildt, Jeanne, 223 240-41, 244 Department of Justice, 78; withholding of spectographic analysis by, 22, 100, 106 Dickey, Charles, 128, 142 Dillard, Tom, 203 Dissection: lack of at autopsy, 121 Dolce, Dr. Joseph, 139 Dougherty, Jack, 173-74 Dragoo, Mrs. Betty, 186 "Dumdum" bullet, 110 Dulles, Allen, 15, 16-17, 26, 82, 89, 111, 134-35, 137, 198 Dziemian, Dr. Arthur J., 140

Edgewood Arsenal, 112 Edwards, Don, 30 Edwards, Robert, 189, 198 Eisenberg, Melvin, 20, 143, 229 Eisenhower, Dwight, 10 Ely, John Hart, 230 Enos, William, 142 Epstein, Edward Jay, 28, 31, 35-36 Euins, Amos, 188, 189-90, 195 Executive sessions of Warren Commission: 12/5/63, 77; 12/16/63, 18, 79-80; 1/21/64, 82-83; 1/22/64, 15, 16; 1/27/64, 17, 19; 4/30/64, 89 "Eyewitness identification of assassin," 61

FBI, 15-23, 30, 37, 76-77, 90, 163, 171, 179-80, 181, 185, 196, 204, 239, 243, 244, 248-49; "agent" at hospital, 145-46; ballistics findings of, 18; report on assassination, 76 77, 249 Federal Bureau of Investigation. {See} FBI Fensterwald, Bernard, 284 Fiber evidence, 170-71; in bag 58; on rifle, 55 Fillinger, Halpert, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 142, 144 Finck, Col. Pierre, 111, 121 Fingerprints: on boxes, 60, 65, 175; on paper bag, 167-68 Fischer, Ronald, 191, 198 Folsom, Col. A. G., 229-30, 232 Ford, Gerald, 26, 29, 36, 111, 197 Fox, Sylvan, 28 Fragments. {See} Bullet fragments Frankford Arsenal, 142

Frazier, Buell Wesley, 56-57, 58, 151, 156, 160, 162, 163-67, 170, 174 Frazier, Robert, 23, 53, 70, 101-4, 119, 125, 143, 226-27 Freedom of Information Act, 22-23, 106 Fritz, Will, 74, 160, 182 Full-jacketed bullets. {See} Military ammunition

Gallagher, John, 20, 101-2 Garrison, Jim, 28-29, 34-35, 115 Givens, Charles, 61, 153, 176-78, 252, 274-75, 287-88 Goldberg, Alfred, 86 Gregory, Dr. Charles, 133, 137-38, 142 Gregory, Dick, 29, 34

Hart, Philip, 278-79 Helpern, Dr. Milton, 142 Henchcliffe, Margaret, 146 "A. Hidell," 55 High-velocity bullets. {See} Bullets Hoover, J. Edgar, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21-22, 30, 77, 100, 105, 159, 172, 179, 185, 249 Howlett, John, 210, 212 Humes, Dr. James J., 109-11, 115, 118, 124 Hunt, E. Howard, 29 Hunting rounds. {See} Sporting ammunition Huxley, Aldous, 239

Interrogation sessions of Oswald, 182-83, 248 Irving, Texas, 56, 58, 156, 157-58, 161-62, 251

Jacketed bullets. {See} Military ammunition Jackson, Robert, 188, 203, 206 Jarman, James, 154, 185-86, 288 Jenner, Albert, 82, 240-41 Johnson, Miss Judy, 186 Johnson, Lyndon B., 25, 26, 78 "Junior," 182-84 Justice Department. {See} Department of Justice

Katzenbach, Nicholas, 77 Kellerman, Roy, 117 Kelley, Thomas, 182 Kennedy, Edward, 278 Kennedy, John: Bay of Pigs, 10 Kleindienst, Richard, 106, 282

Landlady of Oswald's rented room, 160 Lands and grooves, 143-44 Lane, Mark, 28, 31, 33-35, 190 Lawyers, 11, 13 Liebeler, Wesley, 58, 60, 67, 68, 69-71, 91, 156, 231, 233, 235, 245 "Life" magazine, 197 Light, Dr. F. W., 139 Limousine: examination of, 47; at hospital, 147 Lineups. {See} Dallas Police Loftus, Joseph, 78 Long, Rowland, 115 "Long and bulky package," 162-74 Lovelady, Billy, 204-5 Lumumba, 30 Lunchroom, on second floor, 202

McCloy, John J., 17,18, 26, 80, 90, 110-11, 134-35, 139, 191 Mannlicher-Carcanco. {See} Rifle "Marksman" rating of Oswald, 230 Meagher, Sylvia, 28, 31, 33, 155, 158, 161-62, 287 Media. {See} Press Medical evidence: limitations of, 107-8 ; meaning of, 107, 249-50 Military ammunition, 109, 114, 116, 117-18, 120, 121, 122, 123-24, 129, 131, 147 Miller, Herbert J., 19 Missed shot, 37, 249 Mitchell, John, 106, 284 Molina, Joe, 204-5 Mooney, Luke, 211, 212 Morgan, Dr. Russell, 122 "Motive" of Oswald, 82, 84 Motorcade: prior knowledge of route of, 151-55; position of at 12:15, 186-87 Muchmore, Mary, 51

National Archives, 15, 105, 129, 140, 159, 179 Neutron Activation Analysis, 19-23, 250 "Newsweek," 78 "New York Times," 74, 78 Nichols, Dr. John, 113, 142 Nix, Orville, 51 Nixon, Richard, 29 Norman, Harold, 183-84 Nosenko, Yuri I., 235 Note to FBI from Oswald, 30

Olivier, Dr. Alfred G., 139-40 On-site tests. {See} Reconstruction of shots Oser, Alvin, 104, 125, 227-28 Oswald, Marina 68, 83, 154, 156 157-58, 161, 170, 223, 233-46 Oswald, Robert, 232-33, 234-35, 246 Outline of Warren Commission work, 80-82, 257-63 Outlines of Warren Report, 86-88, 266-70

Paine garage, 245 Paine home: police search of, 157 Paine, Ruth, 56, 156, 158, 161, 170, 234, 245 Palmprint: on bag, 57-58; on rifle, 55 Paper bag, 57-58, 151, 163, 167-73, 251; prints on, 57-58, 167-68 Paraffin casts, 21 Parkland Memorial Hospital, 25 107, 145, 146, 251; Cuban refugee employed at, 146; doctors employed at, 116, 132; "FBI agent" at, 145-46 Patsy, Oswald as, 248 Perry, Dr. Malcolm, 119 "Philadelphia Inquirer," 74 Photograph of Oswald with rifle, 55 Piper, Eddie, 180-81, 209 "Planted" evidence, 147-48, 251, 254 Police. {See} Dallas Police Popkin, Richard, 28, 36 Presidency, 10 Press, 9, 11-13; reaction to Warren Report, 27; suspicious of Warren Report criticism, 29; presumption of Oswald's guilt by, 75 Psychology, 221

Rachey, Bonnie, 186 Radio: in Oswald's possession 154 Randle, Linnie Mae, 57, 162-64, 165-66 Rankin, J. Lee, 16-17, 19, 23, 26, 80, 82-83, 89, 91, 159, 179-81, 185, 234, 237, 242-43, 252 Reconstruction: of assassin's movements, 209-14; of movements after the shots, 64, 202-21, 252; of shots, 52, 88-89, 271-73 Redlich, Norman, 33, 87-89 Reid, Mrs. Robert, 153, 222-23 Revill, Jack, 177 Rifle, 18, 49, 50, 52, 54-55, 56-57, 58, 95, 106, 107, 151, 156, 162, 167, 170-72, 191, 210, 225, 227 235-39, 246, 249-50, 253, 289; ammunition for, 140; capability of, 66; capability tests with 228-29; disassembled, 164, 166; fibers on, 55; hiding of, 212-16, palmprint on, 55; photograph of Oswald with, 55; test firing for accuracy, 70-71; practice with by Oswald, 232-46 Roberts, Mrs. Earlene, 154 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 10 Rowland, Arnold, 186-87,189,198 Ruby, Jack, 25, 27, 146 Russell, Sen. Richard, 17, 26, 79 Russia: hunting by Oswald in, 233-35, 243, 246

Salandria, Vincent, 27, 283 Sauvage, Leo, 27, 161 Sawyer, Herbert, 177 Secret Service, 16, 181, 190, 234 "Sharpshooter" rating of Oswald, 230 Shaw, Clay: trial of, 28-29, 35, 103, 115, 226-27 Shaw, Dr. Robert, 134-37, 142 Shelley, Bill, 178, 204-5 Shires, Dr. Tom, 133 "Short charge," 128 Shotgun practice by Oswald, 233-35 Shots: as "easy," 67; nature of, 225-28; number of, 53; time span of, 54 Simmons, Ronald, 227, 229, 246 Single-bullet theory, 53, 226 Sirica, John, 14 Slawson, W. David, 83 Snyder, LeMoyne, 115, 123 Soft-nosed ammunition. {See} Sporting ammunition Sorrels, Forrest, 195 Soviet Union. {See} Russia Specter, Arlen, 83, 101-3, 110, 133, 136, 138-39, 189 Spectographic analyses, 18-19, 22, 47, 95-106, 147, 250, 284 Sporting ammunition, 114, 116, 118, 123-24, 129, 131 Staff of Warren Commission, 15, 18, 21, 26, 34, 35, 40, 188, 249 "St.Louis Post-Dispatch," 74 Stombaugh, Paul, 170 Sturgis, Frank, 30

Tape from Depository dispenser, 169 Texas School Book Depository, 47, 56, 147, 151, 251; discovery of curtain rods in, 159 Thompson, Josiah, 28, 36-37 "Time," 77 Tippit, J. D., 25, 32, 38, 66, 81 Trevor-Roper, Hugh, 34 Trujillo, 30 Truly, Roy, 63, 153, 159, 201-9, 216-20, 222, 252-53 "Twenty-six volumes," 27

Underwood, Jim, 203

Varminting bullets, 120 Vestibule on second floor, 202, 214, 217

Wade, Henry, 75 Walker Edwin A.: shot fired at, 66, 81, 221, 237, 240 Walther, Mrs. Carolyn, 189, 198 Warren, Earl, 18, 26, 32, 34, 79, 80, 82-83 "Washington Post," 13, 77 Watergate, 9, 13, 29 Weberman, A. J., 29 Wecht, Cyril, 37-39, 121, 142, 280-81 Weigman, David, 206 Weisberg, Harold, 15, 16, 19, 21, 22-23, 28, 31-33, 36, 105-6, 142, 146, 153, 168, 184-85, 208, 284 Weitzman, Seymour, 212, 213 West, Troy Eugene, 168-70 Williams, Bonnie Ray, 153 Window, evidence near, 59-60 Witnesses of sixth-floor gunman, 47 Wounds. {See} Bullet wounds

Zahm, James A., 227, 231 Zapruder, Abraham, 51; film by, 36, 51, 54, 116, 226